Review of Impedance-Based Fault Location Algorithm in Electric Power Transmission Line, using computerized fault recorders.

Fault location Algorithm is an important task in power system engineer because accurate faults location algorithms on power transmission lines need to be detected and located rapidly, classified correctly and cleared as fast as possible to restore the supply back to the system, so as to avoid possible damages to people, property and environment. In this paper review of impedance- based fault location algorithm in electrical power transmission line, which include, the one-ended impedance algorithm such as (Takagi method, Modified Takagi method, Erikson method, Novosel method) and the two-ended impedance based algorithm such as (synchronized two-ended method and unsynchronized two-ended method).. Fault data availability forms a basic for choosing the most suitable fault location algorithm. The result of this paper shows that the simple reactance method is the simplest and low cost of the entire impedance - based fault location algorithm. The fault resistance and the load current make the algorithm to deteriorate in accuracy. The Takagi method was developed to correct these lapses because of its robustness to load and sensitivity. Source impedance parameters were used by the Modified Takagi and Erikson methods for elimination of any source of errors. The mutual coupling in double-circuit transmission lines and an uncertain value of zero-sequence line impedance are responsible for the inaccuracy of one-ended impedance-based technique. This problem was overcome by two-ended fault location algorithm that used voltage and current measurements captured from both ends of transmission line and are attractive for tracking down the specific position where the fault is to be located. Availability of data is one of the most important factors in selecting the best technique for fault location. Additional equipment needed to be installed for improving the accuracy of fault location algorithm is very useful. This paper will form a basis for choosing an appropriate fault location technique for electrical power transmission network. Keywords: Transmission Line, Takagi, Modified Takagi, Erikson, Novosel and Impedance-Based methods

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